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SPED Calgary Chapter

Unified Alloys Technical presentation

 April 30,2014 – Belfry Gastro House,Calgary


Present: Unified Alloys Officers

Darren Hansen,Chief Executive Officer,Unified Alloys

Ross Morrison,Business Development,Unified Alloys

Mike Desrochers,General Manager,Unified Alloys

Calgary SPED Officers

Kevin Noakes,PPD IV ,President,SPED Calgary Chapter

Paul Bowers,PPD IV                            Director-At-Large,SPED Calgary Chapter

Bir S. Khangura,PPD III                       Secretary,SPED Calgary Chapter


             41 people attended;29 members,4 former members,and 8 non members.

SPED Calgary Chapter President update:

SCC President Kevin Noakes opened the meeting at 5:45 pm by emphasising the need for members to renew their SCC membership annually and how to get required PDU’s to maintain their membership. SPED members should keep their contact info current so that the meeting attendance certificate can be emailed to them. SPED continues to provide incentives to members and will continue to terminate membership of expired members. Speaking about the upcoming SCC events,Kevin noted that SCC Director-at-large,Clearance Wynter,of AMEC Oil &Gas Canada,will provide a technical presentation about  requirements on construction sites for site piping technical support at the next SCC AGBM and that the next meeting will feature a Cadworx technical demonstration provided by CodeCAD in June with details to follow.

Featured Technical Presentation by Unified Alloys:

Ross Morrison and Mike Desrochers,Unified Alloys Senior Technical Sales Representatives and Darren Hansen,Unified Alloys CEO ,  provided the SPED Calgary Chapter with the featured technical presentation focused on Stainless and Alloy Steel.

Meeting Agenda:               1. Safety Moment

2. Unified Alloys overview

3. Stainless steel Basics

4. Chrome-Moly Alloy Basics

5. Piping &Instrumentation Components

6. Liquid Oxygen,Gaseous Oxygen and Cryogenic Materials


7. Cryogenic pipe supports,guides and anchors

8. Quality Control:Positive Material Identification

9. Handling &Storage of Stainless Steel

10. Corrosion Issues – Stainless Steel

11. Question Session

Safety Moment

Unified Alloys Chief Executive,Darren Hansen,provided the safety moment about planning and managing a road trip. The more planning you do in advance,the more likely you are to have a safe and successful journey.

Unified Alloys overview

Established in 1976,Unified Alloy is 100% Canadian,ISO 9001:2008 certified company. With strategic service and stocking locations across Canada,Unified Alloys provides Piping and Instrumentation Products and solutions and is a pre-qualified supplier for many resource owners and EPC companies.

Stainless Steel Basics 

Stainless steel,produced by using different concentrations of alloying elements,is known for relatively high strength,good corrosion resistance,and ductility. Stainless Steel has five different metallurgical structures (austenitic,ferritic,martensitic,precipitating hardening and duplex) each having different characteristics is created for different applications.

Stainless steel is created when the element of chromium is added at a min. of 10.5% to the iron and carbon.  Chromium produces a rapidly self-repairing invisible inert film also known as “passive layer” in the presence of oxygen as a thin layer of oxide that quickly repairs damage.

Chrome-Moly Alloy Basics

Chromium molybdenum alloy steel is an alloy steel intended for high temperature and high pressure services because of its strong resistance to rupturing at high temperatures and high pressures. It is mainly used in the power generation and petro-chemical industry because of its tensile strength,corrosion resistance,high temperature strength and resistance to cracking from hydrogen attack and hot sulfide corrosion cracking.

Piping &Instrumentation Components

Unified alloys supplies industrial tubing,fittings,valves,regulators,manifolds,double block &bleed valves,multitube/ pre-insulated bundle.

Double block and bleed:Double block and bleed valves come as Hi-Pro,Pro-block and Monoflange valves. Smaller footprint,improved safety,reduced labor &maintenance,reduced load &vibration in process,and integral (Tru-loc) connections are some of the features of double block and bleed valves.

Mono flange is much smaller and lighter. Hi-Pro has the option of NPT connections. Pro-Bloc has the option of using ball/ needle valves as well as sample probes.

Glycol Heat tracing

Glycol heat tracing system transfer heat by using a series of pipes in a closed loop circulation system. The heat trace tubing runs in a loop next to the pipe that requires heat and the transfer of heat takes place by movement of fluids. The different types of tubing manufactured by Unified Alloys are Temptube,Light Trace,Heavy Trace,Self-regulating low temperature heated bundles,continuous steam purge bundles.

The glycol heat tracing system consists of:

a)      Boilers to supply heat

b)      Heat exchanger from a main heat reservoir

c)      Circulating pump

d)      Expansion tank

e)      Specialty valves and controls

Liquid Oxygen,Gaseous Oxygen and Cryogenic Materials

Liquid Oxygen service:cannot be contained in carbon steel or low alloy steel but can be in stainless steel,copper and its alloy,nickel and its alloys,brass bronze,silicon alloys,monel,Inconel and beryllium.

Gaseous Oxygen materials:The austentic grades (300 series) of stainless steel have higher resistance to ignition than carbon steel,however,stainless steel,once ignited,burns more rapidly than carbon steel.

Cryogenic Materials:require suitable mechanical properties at transition temperatures. Stainless steel alloys 304/l and 316/l are commonly used having better thermal expansion and lower temperature properties than carbon steel,that cannot be used due to embitterment.

Cryogenic pipe supports,guides and anchors

When designing insulated pipe shoes,standard procedure is based on an analysis of load requirements and temperature details. Cryogenic pipe supports,guides and anchors are designed to minimize thermal conduction. Taking into account warm-up and cool down loads,piping flexibility analysis is necessary.  Expansion and contraction of material supports must be capable of accommodating movements. Also PTFE slide plates are used to minimize forces caused by friction.

Quality Control

At Unified Alloy,the evaluation process begins with the distribution and receipt of a completed Vendor Qualification Data Collection Form. The procurement department reviews the documentation and forwards it to the Quality department for further review and approval.

Minimum documentation includes:

• Evidence of an implemented Quality Management System

• Product accreditations such as ASME,ASTM,MSS,etc.

• Canadian Registration Number (CRN –when applicable)

• Company and product literature

• Sample Material Test Reports

• Samples of specific material

The initial order with a new vendor undergoes a stringent quality inspection,this may include,depending on the product:

• Positive Material Identification (PMI) NDE inspection

• Material Dimension Inspection (e.g.,thickness,ovality,length)

• Data and Documentation Review

Depending on the results of the inspection,the vendor is added to the Approved Vendors List or provided  a second trial order opportunity or rejected.

Handling &Storage of Stainless Steel

• Procedure SOP-007

• Requires separation of alloy and carbon products

• A Barrier protection on handling and storage equipment that may come in contact with alloy products

• No SS/A material stored directly on the ground

• Handling techniques &equipment employed to prevent injury to people and inadvertent product damage

• Alloy and carbon never shipped together in a crate

• Barrier protection between banding and pipe

• Mechanical damage (e.g.,scratches and gouges) can occur easily during handling if not guarded against.

• Mechanical damage will result in the passive oxide film being “punctured” leading to a possible lower resistance to the initiation of corrosion than the surrounding chemically passive surface.

• Carbon steel particles embedded into Stainless Steels that are not removed can lead to pitting corrosion.

Stainless Steel Corrosion Issues

Main causes of corrosion are:

• Saliferous / Brackish Water Environments

• Sour Gas Environment

• Surface Contamination

• Presence of Crevices

• Improper Alloy Selection

• Microbial Action

• Galvanic / mixing dissimilar materials

Types of corrosion:

• Pitting corrosion:a form of galvanic corrosion,in which chromium is dissolved and failures can occur. In the case where carbon steel contamination is not removed,galvanic corrosion can occur. The residual solution from the carbon steel “rusting” in the pit turns to FeCl3,which is corrosive to stainless steel.

• Stress corrosion cracking:Under the combined effects of stress and certain corrosive environments stainless steels can be subject to this very rapid and severe form of corrosion. The most damaging environment is a solution of chlorides in water,such as sea water,particularly at elevated temperatures.

Question Session

After the presentation a question session was opened for the audience. Darren Hansen and Ross Morrison answered interesting questions put to them by some of those attending the presentation.


Kevin Noakes,President of SPED Calgary Chapter,thanked Darren Hansen,Ross Morrison and Mike Desrochers for arranging the presentation for the SPED CC meeting and for all those who attended and adjourned the meeting at about 8:00 p.m.

May 1st,2014 | Category:SPED Event

Nardei Fabricators Technical Presentation on Process Piping Shop Fabrication


Asking Bob about piping fabrication usually results in good questions. He is ++1 in my evaluation.

History of Nardei Fabricators: Bob Nardei P. Eng.,started the presentation providing a brief history of Nardei Fabricators Ltd. (Where Nardei Fabricators are located,when Nardei Fabricators located there and how and when Bob Nardei got involved with Nardei Fabricators)

Overview of Pipe fabrication process: Bob provided the SCC members with brief overview of  the pipe fabrication process.

  1. After getting a contract,based on the bidding Bill of Material,the shop either receives the bulk material from the client or purchases it through Nardei Fabricators or with the Client’s permission,the material used is taken from existing stock if it meets all the job specifications.

Nardei fabricators provide the client with detailed material reports at regular intervals through the job (making the client aware of any surplus or shortage of material).

  1. Client iso’s received are used to prepare Nardei’s custom shop spool dwgs. These dwgs provide all the required details for the fab shop floor.
  2. Based on the BOM from these spool dwgs the material is tagged and picked from the material yard and brought onto the fab shop floor.
  3. The material is given to the spool shop bench where the pipe fitter puts all the fitting together for the spool. At the shop bench the ends of pipe for fitting is prepared for welding.
  4. In assembly line fashion the fitted spool is then passed to the welding bench where it will be decided if that spool can be rotated or the welder has to move around the spool for weld up. Based on this the fabrication welding is planned.
  5. After the welding is done the welding is examined and inspected for flaws and cracks and corrected.

NDE extent and methods: Bob Nardei explained the quality assurance procedures after the welding is done and it is examined and inspected for flaws. For example,a finished spool is picked from one lot for a 5% specified x-ray examination by lot done by the same welder and inspected. If failed a 2nd spool is picked and inspected. If the 2nd piece passes the whole lot passes or otherwise the whole lot is examined for flaws. In the end   corrective action is taken to avoid further such errors.  The welding is examined and inspected for flaws by using the following methods:

  1. Volumetric Non Destructive Examination.  Volumetric examinations involve radiographic examinations (isotopes or x-rays),ultrasonic examinations and eddy current testing. (see Appendix 1 for technical details)
  1. Surface Non Destructive Examination.

Surface NDE examinations involve Magnetic Particle examination,Liquid Penetrant examination,Hardness examination,and Ferrite examination. (see Appendix 1 for technical details)

Positive Material Identification (PMI): PMI is carried out using a 45 kV x-ray tube which converts the information gathered and returned to the PMI unit into a chemical symbol for the different chemical elements contained within the steel and can also confirm what the steel is,for example:Zeron 100.  The advantage of this unit is that it is battery operated,hand held,making it extremely portable,leaves no arc strike on the part and this means that sealed areas can be tested without ill-effect. Swarf or filings can be tested without melting them into a block.

Welding Traceability: Each weld done by every welder is recorded and traced. In event of weld failure the Traceability record is used to determine the welder,location of weld and execute preventative measures to avoid any such situation in future.

Preparation of Shop spool dwg’s from client isometrics:  Client isometrics received from Clients are converted to Nardei Fabricators custom spool drawings that have direction, instructions,material specification for every weld,end prep details,and other specialised information for fabrication

Also discussed by Bob and Brian were:

  1. Materials Control in Shortage situations when due to schedule of project or availability of material there is a shortage of material that Nardei fabricators must control for;
  1. Using Fittings instead of branch welds;
  2. Module limits and temporary supports;
  3. Fabrication considerations such as the effects of holds and revisions on the fabrication spool dwgs and the fabrication process;
  4. Field weld locations;
  5. Spool loading,shipping,unloading and the shipping box;
  6. Shop welds “in position”;
  7. Module limits and temporary supports.

PROCAD Presentation:Zaia Abraham, President and Owner,Derrick Leung,Product Developer,PROCAD and Jacky Huynh,Product Presenter,of PROCAD provided a presentation to demonstrate SpoolCAD shop fabrication application software. This is a manually derived specification based spool fabrication Isometric shop drawing tool. The Team demonstrated all the features of the SpoolCAD software to produce Fabrication Isos ,tag the inline items,welds and produced shop fab. BOMs that can be edited as needed to suit any Fab Shop’s template.

Question Session:After the presentation a question session was opened for the audience and Bob answered some interesting questions,for example concerning HAZ considerations and minimum length pup piece determinants.


Kevin Noakes,thanked Bob Nardei,Brian Kargus,Derrick Leung,Jacky Huynh and Zaia Abraham for giving such an interesting,knowledgeable and detailed presentation on pipe shop fabrication. The meeting was adjourned at 8.30 p.m.

Appendix 1

1.  Radiographic examination:This method of weld testing makes use of X-rays,produced by an X-ray tube,or gamma rays,produced by a radioactive isotope.  The basic principle of radiographic inspection of welds is the same as that for medical radiography. Penetrating radiation is passed through a solid object,in this case a weld rather that part of the human body,onto a photographic film,resulting in an image of the object’s internal structure as deposited on the film.  Because the amount of energy absorbed by the object depends on its thickness and density,energy not absorbed by the object will cause its exposure on the radiographic film.  These areas will be dark when the film is developed.  Areas of the film exposed to less energy remain lighter.  Therefore,areas of the object where the thickness has been changed by discontinuities,such as porosity or cracks,will appear as dark outlines on the film.  Inclusions of low density,such as slag,will appear as dark areas on the film while inclusions of high density,such as tungsten,will appear as light areas.  All discontinuities are detected by viewing shape and variation in density of the processed film.

Radiographic testing can provide a permanent film record of weld quality that is relatively easy to interpret by trained personnel.  This type of testing method is usually suited to having access to both sides of the welded joint (with the exception of double wall signal image techniques used on some pipe work).  This is a slow and expensive method of non-destructive testing but it is a positive method for detecting porosity,inclusions,cracks,and voids in the interior of welds.  It is essential that qualified personnel conduct radiographic interpretation since false interpretation of radiographs can be expensive to deal with and can seriously interfere with assembly productivity.

There are safety considerations when conducting radiographic testing.  X-ray and gamma radiation exposure can have serious health and safety implications. Only suitably trained and qualified personnel should conduct this type of testing

2. Ultrasonic Testing (UT):This testing method,called the ultrasonic contact pulse reflection technique,makes use of mechanical vibrations similar to sound waves but of a higher frequency.  A beam of ultrasonic energy is directed into the object to be tested.  This beam travels through the object with insignificant loss,except when it is intercepted and reflected by a discontinuity.

This system uses a transducer that changes electrical energy into mechanical energy.  The transducer is excited by a high-frequency voltage,that causes a crystal to vibrate mechanically.  The crystal probe becomes the source of ultrasonic mechanical vibration.  These vibrations are transmitted into the test piece through a coupling fluid,usually a film of oil,called a couplant.  When the pulse of ultrasonic waves strikes a discontinuity in the test piece,it is reflected back to its point of origin.  This energy wave returns to the transducer.  The transducer now serves as a receiver for the reflected energy.  The initial signal or main bang,the returned echoes from the discontinuities,and the echo of the rear surface of the test piece are all displayed by a trace recorded on the screen of a cathode-ray oscilloscope.

The detection,location,and evaluation of discontinuities are possible because the velocity of sound through a given material is nearly constant,making distance measurement possible,and the relative amplitude of a reflected wave pulse is more or less proportional to the reflector size.

One of the most useful characteristics of ultrasonic testing is its ability to determine the exact position of a discontinuity in

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SPED Calgary Officers

Kevin Noakes, President
Paul Bowers, President
Jean-Marc Cloutier, Vice-President
Lauren Yun, Treasurer
Bir Khangoura, Secretary
Clarence Wynter, Executive-at-Large
Terri Robb, Executive-at-Large
Jacques de Fortier, Executive-at-Large


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